According to this (five month old) article, the Government wishes to Restart Anthrax Vaccines. A federal District Court ruled that mandatory Anthrax vaccines may not be administered, but the Military wants an emergency order to restart the vaccines. They claim safety issues for their soldiers.
Many military members believe that the vaccine is not safe. They think that it causes side effects that they don't want to deal with simply to prevent the "chance" that someone might use Anthrax against them.
Additionally, as far as I can tell, there's not been any field studies to see if the vaccine, which was developed for subcutaneous anthrax would work against the inhaled Anthrax that would be used in a war scenario.
"America's best scientists say the Anthrax vaccine is safe and effective," [assistant secretary of defense for health affairs Dr. William] Winkenwerder asserted.
Approximately 450 military members have refused the vaccine, of whom about 100 have been Court Martialled for failing to obey a lawful order.
The reason that the mandatory vaccine was ruled against, I'd surmise, is that a person has a right to dominion over their body. Cheif Justice Rehnquist stated in Cruzan v. Director, Missouri Dept. of Health (457 U.S. 261) that "at common law, even the touching of one person by another without consent and without legal justification was a battery. [The] logical corrolary of the doctrine of informed consent is that the patient generally possesses the right NOT to consent, that is, to refuse treatment." (emphasis added)
This should mean that military members should have the right to determine whether or not to have a vaccine, which I can't picture being anything other than a medical procedure, however, the military feels that it's in their (the military's) best interest to force these vaccines on unwilling subjects.
I oppose mandatory vaccinations of consenting adults, and I believe that any order that would force someone to receive treatment they did not consent to cannot be a lawful order. I hope that the efforts to restart the Anthrax vaccine fails.